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院士束怀瑞:果树“魔法师”

添加时间:2018-05-23 09:07:48  浏览次数: 次  :



如果在童话故事里,束怀瑞一定是位果园“魔法师”。

球探体育KEYIWEISHUGENKANBINGZUOZHEN,JISHUYEDIAOJIEYINGYANG“SHANSHI”,BAGUOYUANLIYIHANYILAODETUDIXUNDEFUTIE,RANGPINTIANZHONGDEGUOSHUJIECHULEILEISHUOGUO……

DANSHISHISHANG,TAMEIYOUMOFA,ERSHIYIWEIGUOSHUXUEZHUANJIA。ZUOWEIZHONGGUOGONGCHENGYUANYUANSHI、SHANDONGNONGYEDAXUEJIAOSHOU,SHUHUAIRUICONGSHIGUOSHUJIAOXUEKEYANJITUIGUANGGONGZUOJIN70NIAN,ZAIGUOSHUGENXISHENGWUXUE、GUOSHUTANDANYINGYANGHEFENGYOUJISHUYUANLIFANGMIANZUOCHUDEZHONGZHONGCHENGGUO,YEZAIGUOYUANLIJIECHUSHUOGUO,ZIYANGLEWUSHUDEWEIYUSHENGHUO。

 

果树研究独具“慧眼”

 

球探体育DUIYUZIJI,SHUHUAIRUIBUAIDUOJIANG。DANTANDAOGUOSHU,89SUIDETAKEYIPOYOUXINGZHISHUOSHANGYILIANGGEXIAOSHI,CONGTUDI,DAOGUOSHU,ZAIDAOGUONONG……RUGUOBAXINLINGBIZUOHUAYUANDEHUA,NEITAXINLIHUOXUZHUANGZHEYIPIANDADI,ZHANGZHEYIPIANGUOLIN。

QISHI,1947NIAN,SHUHUAIRUIKAORUSHANDONGNONGXUEYUANSHI,TADUIGUOSHU、GUOPINZHILEIBINGMEISHENMERENSHI。DANZAIXIAODE3NIANXUEXI、LAOSHIMENDEYANCHUANSHENJIAO,DIANDINGLETADEGUOSHUKEYANSHENGYA。

球探体育YANJIUGUOSHUDERENBUSHAO,SHUHUAIRUIDEXILIZHICHUZAIYU,TAZAIGANGCONGSHIGUOSHUYANJIUBUJIUJIUDINGSHANGLEHENSHAOYOURENGUANZHUDEGUOSHUGENXI。

球探体育GUOQU,RENMENZAIGUOSHUZAIPEIGUANLIHEYANJIUZHONG,WANGWANGZHIZHONGSHIDISHANGBUFEN,ZAIXIUJIAN、ZHENGXING、JIAOSHUI、SHIFEIDENGFANGMIANXIAZULEGONGFU,QUEHENSHAOYOURENYANJIUGENXI。DIXIABUFENKANBUJIAN、MOBUDAO,GENSHIRUHEFASHENGBIANHUADE?ZHEIGOUQILESHUHUAIRUIDEHAOQIXIN。

从1954年,束怀瑞就开始潜心研究根系。他在研究中渐渐发现,地上的问题根源在地下,“根系是植物的‘根本’,任何影响根系生长的因子都会影响整个植株的生长发育,人类最基本的农事活动也都主要是为根系创造最适宜的生长环境与合理的营养空间。果树根系是提高果品产量和改善果实品质的潜力所在。”

球探体育ERTADEYANJIUYEPOYOUCHENGXIAO,BIRU,ZAISHANDONGSHENGJUANCHENGXIAN、JUYEXIANJIULIXIALEDAGONG。

LIANGDIGUOYUANDOUZAIPINGYUANDIWADI,XIAJIYIJISHUI,DAOZHIMUCHANZHIYOUSIWUBAIJINGUOZI。SHANGSHIJI80NIANDAIMO,SHUHUAIRUILAIDAOZHEILI,RENZHENYANJIUGUOYUANDELIDITEDIANHOU,TICHUYAOQILONGCHENGGOU,PAIDIAOJISHUI。WEIFANGZHICHENGGOUHOU,GENBUJILAOPAIBUCHEDI,TAHAISHIZHEZAIGOUPANGBIANMAISHANGMAIJIECAOZUODECAOBAZI,JIGENBUTONGTONGQI。MEIXIANGDAO,FANSHIQILONG、MAILECAOBAZIDEGUOYUAN,DIERNIANMUCHANYIXIAZICUANDAO2000GONGJIN。

SHUHUAIRUIJIZHEIXIANGZAIPINGYUANDICAIYONGQILONGCHENGGOUMAICAOBADEJISHU,QIMINGJIAO“QILONGGOUCAOFA”。HOULAITAZONGJIEFENXIZHEIYIJISHUSHIRENWEI,JILAOSHIZAOCHENGGENXIZHIXI、DAOZHIZAOQILUOYEDEZHONGYAOYUANYIN,CHENGGOUQILONGYOULIYUPAISHUITONGQI,FANGZHIZAOQILUOYE,CUJINHUAYAXINGCHENG。

DANJINYANJIUGENSHIBUGOUDE。SHUHUAIRUIHAIYANJIUSHUYE,YOUCITANJIUGUOSHUDEYINGYANGAOMIDENG。GENJUYANJIU,TATICHULE“GUOSHUGENXISHISHENGTAIBIANYIDA、HUANJINGFANYINGJIMINGAN、SHIYINGFAZHIXIAODEBUWANZHENGGONGNENGBUCHANGJIEGOU”、“KANTANSHIDAN,YIDANCUTAN,YANGGENZHUANGSHU,YOUZHIFENGCHAN”DENGYIXILIEZHONGYAOGUANDIAN,CHENGWEIGUOSHUZAIPEIGUANLIDEJIBENYUANZE。

 

自称有点专业知识的农民

 

RUGUOSHUO,DUIGUOSHUGENXIDENGDEYANJIUSHISHUHUAIRUIZAIYANJIUFANGXIANGSHANGYANGUANGDUDAO,NEITAZAIYANJIUFANGFASHANGYEKEYISHUO,ZIYOUYITAO。

SHUHUAIRUISHUO:“WOHEXIANZAIDEQINGNIANBUYIYANG,WOXIHUANXIANGNONGMINQUNZHONGXUEXI,XIANGSHENGCHANSHIJIANXUEXI。”

TAQIANQIANHOUHOUZAINONGCUNDAIGUOYUE30NIAN,CHANGCHANGWANGDISHANGYIDUN,JIUHENONGMINQUNZHONGLAOQIJIACHANG,LIAOQISHENGCHAN,SHEIJIAXIUJIANGUOSHUDEJIANDAOMEILE,“NAZOUYONGBA”,NACIYOUTINGDAOSHEIJIAYOUYOUKUNNAN,JIUTAOCHUERSANBAIYUANJIEJIRENJIA,CHANGCHANGYOUJIEBUYONGHAI。TAZICHENGSHIYIWEIYOUDIANZHUANYEZHISHIDENONGMIN,ZOUDAONAERDOUZHUYILEJIENONGMINZAISHENGCHANSHANGYOUSHENMEKUNNAN,YOUYOUSHENMEHAODEZUOFA,YOUWENTIJIUQUYANJIUJIEJUE,YOUHAOBANFAJIUQUXUEXIZONGJIE。

1958年冬,束怀瑞在威海考察时,在劳模陶遵祜的苹果园里发现了一棵特别的树,该树以三大主枝为主,层次分明,树势匀称、健壮,可谓苹果树中的“模特”。他就向陶遵祜学习、总结树形经验。回到学校后,束怀瑞从营养吸收、产量形成等方面对这种树形进行了详细分析,把它称为三大主枝主干疏层形,并在此基础上提出了枝组的概念,以及枝组培养等观点,成为苹果整形修剪中的典型经验,沿用至今。

球探体育HOULAI,TAHAIQINZIBATAOZUNHU、QIHESHENG、GAOJIANFA、HUANGSHANZHIDENGYIZHONGLAOMOQINGDAOSHANDONGNONGXUEYUANLAIWEIXUESHENGJIANGGUOSHUXIUJIANJISHU、ZAIPEIGUANLI。

球探体育ZHEIXIESUIYIGUOQULEWULIUSHINIAN,DANZHIJINTIQI,SHUHUAIRUIRENGJIYIYOUXIN,NEIXIENONGMINLAOMODEMINGZIDOUHAIJIDEQINGQINGCHUCHU。

TACENGJINGZHEIYANGZONGJIE:ZAIQUNZHONGZHONGYOUXUEBUWANDEJINGYAN,YOUSHUOBUJINDEFAXIAN。YIXIANGJISHUMEIYOUCANJIAXITONGDESHIJIAN,KAODANCHUNDESHUBENLIJIE,SHIJUEDUIBUXINGDE,ZHIYOUTONGGUOSHIJIANCAINENGDUIZHISHILINGHUOZHANGWOHEYUNYONG。QUNZHONGZAISHENGCHANSHIJIANGUOCHENGZHONG,NENGCHUANGZAOCHUYIXIESHUBENSHANGZHAOBUDAODE、DANSHIDUISHEHUIGONGXIANHENDADE、GAOSHUIPINGDEJISHU,NONGMINZHUANJIAZAINONGYESHENGCHANZHONGYOUZHEZHONGYAODEZUOYONG,XUXINXIANGNONGMINXUEXISHIFEICHANGZHONGYAODE。

 

让青年接棒

 

“XIANZAINONGKEYUANXIAOZUIDADEYIGEWENTI,JIUSHITUOLISHENGCHAN。”SHUHUAIRUISHUO。

ZAISHUHUAIRUIKANLAI,GAONONGYEKEYAN,BIXUYITOULIANZHELILUN,YITOULIANZHESHENGCHANSHIJIAN,BUDUANCONGSHIJIANZHONGFAXIANWENTI,BUDUANCHUANGXINJIEJUESHENGCHANSHIJIWENTI,RANGKEYANCHENGGUOZAIHUIDAOTIANJIANQU。

球探体育TASHIZHEIMESHUODE,YESHIZHEIYANGZUODE,DANGRANTAYESHIZHEIMEJIAOXUESHENGDE。

1982NIAN,SHUHUAIRUIDAOYIMENGSHANQUDEMENGYINXIANJINXINGFUPINKAIFA,QIANQIANHOUHOUDAILE10NIAN。MENGYINXIANSHIYIGESHANQUXIAN,TURANGPINJI,JIAOTONGBISAI,JUEDADUOSHUGUOYUANMUCHANBUZU300GONGJIN,HENDUOSHENZHICHANGNIANBUJIEGUO,DANGDIQUNZHONGYIZHICHUYUPINKUNZHUANGTAI。SHUHUAIRUIXUANZELEXIANLITIAOJIANZUICHADEGAODOUXIANGJIULILINGGUOYUANWEIKAIFAJIDIAN,LINGZHEXUESHENGZAINEI7MUZUIPINJIDETUDISHANGJINXINGSHIYANYANJIU。

球探体育“DANGSHIZHUZAISHANLI,JINGCHANGJIUZHEXIANCAIKENSHAOBING。”SHUHUAIRUIDEXUESHENG、SHANDONGNONGYEDAXUEFUXIAOZHANGGAODONGSHENGHUIYISHUO,“DANLAOSHIHENJIANCHI。”

SHUHUAIRUIGENJUZIJIDUIGENXIDEYANJIU,SHIZHEZAIMEIKEGUOSHUXIAWALE4GEYINGYANGXUE,XUEZHONGFANGSHANGCAOBA,ZHOUWEIGEFANGYUE50gNIAOSUHEGUOLINSUANGAI,ZAIGUAN5GONGJINSHUI,PUSHANGDIMOBAXUEFENGYAN,ZAIZAIDIMOSHANGWAYIXIAOKONG,GAISHANGYIGESHIKUAI,YISHOUJIJIANGSHUI。

谁也没想到,这个七八年不结果的果园,到第二年每亩平均结了1100多公斤苹果,每棵树的成本却只有2.4元。这项被称为“地膜覆盖穴贮肥水”的技术,“七五”、“八五”期间在17个省推广470万亩,创经济效益7.6亿元。


 
球探体育 虽已是耄耋之年,束怀瑞还经常下乡,了解果树生产形势,指导种植户生产。他认为,农业科研要把深奥的理论化为简单实用的技术,让这些理论研究的成果、创新的技术接地气,好让农民在生产上很容易掌握、便于推广。

球探体育CHULELIANXISHIJI,SHUHUAIRUIRENWEI,YAOJIANSHEYILIUXUEKE,BIXUYOUYILIUDERENCAI,YAOPEIYANGYILIURENCAIJIUBIXUXIANQUELIKAIFANGDERENCAIPEIYANGGUAN。TAJIANYIDANGXIAQINGNIANKEJIRENCAIYAOZHONGSHIZHISHIRONGHE、XUEKEJIAOCHA,JINRUQIANZHANXINGHEKAICHUANGXINGDEYANJIULINGYU,“XUEKEFAZHAN、TIGAOKEYANSHUIPINGDEGENBENZAIYUCHUANGXIN。YAOSHANYUJIANGXIANDAIGAOXINJISHUYUXUEKEFAZHANJIEHEQILAI,KAITUOXINYANJIULINGYU。”

束怀瑞希望,通过人才的培养和发展,使果树根系生物学、果树生理学及生物技术育种等研究方向上的理论及基础研究达到国际领先水平,创造一批新技术,通过建立高新技术产业,推动成果创新,带动果品产业的发展。

来源:中国青年报



 

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